Human Resource Planning is tied to the broader process of strategic planning, beginning with identifying the philosophy and mission of the organization.
a} Define strategic planning. What roles does Human Resource play in strategic planning?
b) Explain the Human Resource Planning.
Strategic planning is the process by which top management determines overall organizational purpose and objectives and how they are to be achieved. When firm mission is clearly defined and its guiding principle understood, employees and managers are likely to put forth maximum effort in pursuing company objectives. Top management expects HR activities to be closely aligned to this mission and strategic goals and to add value toward achieving these goals. The advantage of strategic planning is most evident as firms respond to rapidly changing environments is because they must have strategic planning to make their company success. Managers engage in three levels of strategic planning for their firms. Strategic planning entails SWOT analysis, which stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
Strategic planning is that one plan the make the company is success in their business. If a firm competitiveness depends on its employees, then the business function responsible for acquiring, training, appraising, and compensating those employees has to play a bigger role in the firm success in their strategic planning. The linking of HRM with strategic goals and objectives is to improve business performance and develop organizational cultures that foster innovation and flexibility. Ideally HR and top management together cooperate to build the company business strategy. That strategy then provides the framework that guides the design of specific HR activities such as recruiting and training. This should produce the employee competencies and behaviors that in turn should help the business implement its business strategy and realize its goals. HR.
Human resource management is responsible for how people are treated in organizations and it is responsible for bringing people into the organization, helping them perform their work, compensating them for their labors, and solving problems that arise. Consequently, human resource management plays a central role in organizational effectiveness. Since a company's most important asset is it's human resources, all managers should be vitally concerned with human resource management. Furthermore, in one sense, all managers are human resource managers because they share with human resource specialists the responsibility for most human resource functions. Also in Human resource play in strategic is they do job analysis is determining the nature of each employee job, planning labor needs and recruiting job candidates, selecting job candidates , orienting and training new employees , wage and salary management (how to compensate employees), providing incentives and benefits, appraising performance, communicating( interviewing, counseling, discipline
The roles does Human Resource play in strategic planning is as Administrative role, Employee Advocate Role, Operational role, Strategic role, Executing strategy role, HR and value Chain Analysis, Role in formulating strategy. This is the role-play by Human Resource in strategic planning.
Role as a Strategic partner
HR’s strategic role is to adapt individual HR practices (recruiting, rewarding, and so on) to fit Strategic planning. Besides that HR management is an equal partner in the strategic planning process? Here, HR’s role in strategic planning not just to adapt its activities to the firm’s business strategy, nor, certainly, just to carry out operational day-to-day tasks like paying employess. Instead, the need to forge the firm’s workforce into a competitive advantage means that HR management must be an equal partner in both the formulation and the implementation of the company‘s strategies in strategic planning.
HR’s role in Executing Strategy
Execution has traditionally been the heart of strategic role and that makes sense. A firm’s functional strategies should support its competitive strategies. For examples FedEx’s competitive strategy is to differentiate itself from its competitors by offering superior customer service and guaranteed on time delivers. This requires highly committed employees ones who’ll “go the extra mile” to do their best. Since the same basic technologies are available to UPS, DHL, and FedEx’s other competitors, it is FedEx’s workforce its human resource that provides FedEx with its FedEx with its competitive advantage this means FedEx, as discussed earlier, must design its HR processes to create a committed, competent, and customer-oriented workforce. A different firm with a different competitive strategy might well have a very different approach to HR.
HR supports strategy implementation in other ways. For example, HR handles the execution of most firms’ downsizing and restructuring strategies by outpacing employees, instituting pay for performance plans, reducing health care costs and retraining employees.
HR and value chain analysis
Strategy execution usually involves identifying and reducing costs, and therefore value chain analysis. A company’s value chain “identifies the primary activities that create value for customers and the related support activities”. By applying value chain analysis HR managers are finding ingenious ways to deliver their own services more cost effectively. IBM’s HR group, faced with drastic cost cutting in the 1990s, first slimmed down form 3400 to 2000 employees. Told to cut costs by another 40% to 50%, the HR team consolidated all its service functions into a centralized human resource service center based in Raleigh, North Carolina. This technology rich call center helps more than 700,000 IBM “customer” (employees and their families) handling over 7 million transactions a year. It reportedly saved IBM over $180 million in its first six or so years. The human resource department is considered a staff department, as are quality control, engineering, and accounting. As they work with other managers to help them deal with human resource issues, human resource managers may perform three very different roles in the organization: an advisory or counseling role, a service role, and a control role.
The advisory or counseling role
In the advisory or counseling role, staff personnel are seen as internal consultants who gather information, diagnose problems, prescribe solutions, and offer assistance and guidance in resolving human resource problems. This relationship is similar to the relationship between a professional consultant and a client. It is the responsibility of the human resource manager to give advice regarding staffing, performance evaluation, training programs, and job redesign. In these situations, the human resource department provides input that assists line managers in making decisions.
The service role
HR managers must also play an active role in helping the company choose its people well, invest in them, support their growth, and respect their needs, while fostering innovations needed to achieve the company's strategic business objectives. In this role, staff personnel perform activities that can be provided more effectively through a centralized staff than through the independent efforts of several different units. These activities are a direct service for line management or for other staff departments. Recruiting, orientation training, record keeping, and reporting duties are examples of the human resource department's service role.
The control role
The human resource department is required to control certain important policies and functions within the organization. This staff role is sometimes called functional authority. In performing this role, the human resource department establishes policies and procedures and monitors compliance with them. In exercising this role, the human resource staff members are seen as representatives or agents of top management. Because of legislation, the control role has become increasingly important in the areas of safety, equal employment opportunity, labor relations, and compensation. When the human resource department places hiring quotas on another department to achieve affirmative action goals, it is exercising its control role.
A bank in the southeast made the strategic decision to change from an institutional bank to a consumer bank. This decision required the bank to establish numerous branch offices in neighborhoods to make banking services more convenient. This generic strategy of growth for the bank had to be aligned with human resource strategies that included aggressive recruiting, careful selection procedures, rapidly rising wages, job creation, and expanded orientation and training.
A tire company discovered that its foreign competitors were manufacturing tires with a new technology that increased productivity, improved quality, and reduced costs. This new technology required fewer workers, which meant that some workers had to be terminated or retired early. But, more importantly, the workers who remained had to be well educated and highly trained. The human resource strategies at this tire manufacturer focused on reducing the size of the labor force and retraining those who stayed. High school and college classes were used to help them acquire quantitative skills and learn how to operate computers. The compensation system was also revised to pay workers for their knowledge and to reward new learning.
b) Human resource management is responsible for how people are treated in organizations -- it is responsible for bringing people into the organization, helping them perform their work, compensating them for their labors, and solving problems that arise. Consequently, human resource management plays a central role in organizational effectiveness. Since a company's most important asset is it's human resources, all managers should be vitally concerned with human resource management. Furthermore, in one sense, all managers are human resource managers because they share with human resource specialists the responsibility for most human resource functions. Human resource planning is the process of analyzing and identifying the need for and availability of human resources so that the organization can meet its objectives. This section discusses HR planning responsibilities, the importance of HR planning even in small business, and the HR planning process. It is also the process of systematically reviewing human resource requirements to ensure that the required numbers of employees, with the required skills are available when they are needed. The process of assessing the organization human resources needs in the light of organizational goals and making plans to ensure that a competent, stable workforce is employed.
Human resources planning is the process of analyzing an organization's human resourcesneeds under changing conditions and developing the activities necessary to meet theseneeds. Such planning helps entities anticipate the impact of change and respond to
such change in a systematic and integrated way.Effective human resources planning and management have become even more important in the highly competitive, global business environment of the twenty-first century. Organizations are evolving into more complex but nontraditional structures to be competitive and attract and retain key individuals. Yet there does not seem to be increased interest in human resources planning. Often relegated to more of a task driven, bureaucratic role, human resources is rarely the strategic business partner it should be. But where does the responsibility for effective human resources really lie? We believe that the most effective human resources is performed by line management with the human resources department providing the tools, guidance and counseling needed for success. To do this, the human resources planning process must be done in partnership with both line and staff managers.
Human resources should be a challenger of the status quo, a visionary who can find alternatives to give your business partners choice, able to think outside the "box" and facilitate change.While there may be any number of ways to conduct human resources planning, we find two common methods:
The Standard Planning Approach
Probably the most common planning approach uses the staff size and configuration at the end of the year and projects those staffing levels and costs into subsequent years. Scenarios are then developed for incremental staffing and cost for new programs and projects. Unfortunately, there are many drawbacks to this approach including:
· It implies that all existing business activities will be continued and are as important as new strategies and plans.
· It assumes that the current business activities are the foundation for reaching the company’s business goals and are being performed effectively.
· It can unnecessarily increase staff levels and not consider the specific competencies that are needed to achieve the strategic objectives.
· It will not uncover, within the organization, those who continue to want to increase the level of employees to preserve power and compensation without looking at productivity.
· It tends to institutionalize the existing planning process and systems past where they cease to be useful.
· It shortcuts important communications from line and staff managers on their goals and support requirements.
· It supports an outdated concept tying compensation and recognition programs to rewarding those with the largest staffs.
· It supports the nonproductive concept that one must have sufficient staff to respond immediately to any request regardless of its importance.
Strategic Plan-Based Human Resources Planning
To truly support the critical objectives of an organization, a strategic human resources planning approach is more effective. This approach is part analytical process and part creating the staffing and services based on the strategic goals, eliminating anything that does not support those goals. Here are some things to think about:
· Start by understanding the specific business priorities by department and business unit based on the overall strategic objectives.
· Understand the internal and external factors that may affect the achievement of the objectives that will ultimately impact the programs and services you will provide.
· Understand who has the responsibilities and accountabilities for achieving each of the objectives, where they are shared and who is to absorb the associated costs. This will identify who your internal customers will be and what they expect.
· Determine if alternatives for the achievement of each business objectives have been developed and what impact that will have on your services.
· Translate these business objectives into specific human resources programs and services.
· Determine what are the tradeoffs in terms of resources needed and timing.
· Analyze the impact if each business objective is not achieved in terms of HR services.
· Test each priority starting with the lowest one in terms of the return versus the expenditure of time and money.
· Determine where efficiencies can be achieved.
· Determine the staffing requirements to meet the business objectives including:
o Level of staffing required and timing.
o Type of employees and specific competencies required.
o Current compliment versus your zero-based staffing requirements.Where surpluses and gaps exist.
Human resources planning process
The basic phases of a human resources planning process are:
Review the entity's strategic, operational, and financial plans to determine
their impact on human resources planning. Determine the number and types of positions required in each functional are a during the period(s) covered by entity plan(s).
Develop programs, policies, and procedures which specify how employees
filling each position will be recruited, selected, evaluated, trained,
compensated, and retired. Specify the exact requirements for each position in a job be scription. Develop systems to monitor the operating environment, anticipate change, and
adjust the human resources plan. Review the entity's strategic, operational, and financial plans to determine their impact on human resources planning Until fairly recently, human resources planning was for the short-term. As an organization develops and plans for the future, a longer-range view is needed. Thus, human resources planning should be done in conjunction with entity strategic planning so that the two are integrated with the entity's strategic objectives. Note, however, that strategic planning horizons may change across entities depending on the nature and function of the entity, the degree of change anticipated, and strategies for the implementation of entity plans. The human resources planning process should include a periodic review of the strategic plan and should be congruent with entity culture, values, and vision.
Managers should determine both short- and long-term staffing needs in the context of
the strategic plan and direction that has been set by the entity.
Human resources planning should be directly related to the percent of total entity
budget allocated to human resources expenditures. Determine the number and types of positions required in each functional area during the period(s) covered by entity plan(s)
Entity job analysis should include analyzing job duties, responsibilities, and tasks
and determining the knowledge, skills, abilities, and tools/equipment required to
perform each type.
Develop systems to monitor the operating environment, anticipate change, and adjust
the human resources plan The entity should monitor both internal and external operating environments and assess how changes and trends in technology, the economy, methodology, and other factor saffect human resources planning and management functions. The entity should assess the impact of environmental factors on staffing plans,
organizational structure, and skills mix (Pope, Chap. 6).Plans should allow for periodic assessment of the gap between employee supply and demand so that the entity can assess current and projected shortages and/or surpluses before they become critical.
Plans should include processes for the development, requisition, and funding of new
positions. Planning processes should be periodically reviewed to identify possible improvementsin human resources investment returns.
Assume you had to recruit a sales representative’s job for a pharmaceutical manufacturer. You want recruit a qualified candidate to fill this position.
a) Give and explain three external and creative methods could be used in recruiting this candidate.
b) After receiving application from the candidate, the next step is making a selection explain eight (8) steps in selection process.
The process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers and with appropriate qualifications, and encouraging them to apply for jobs with an organization. External Recruiting. Numerous methods are available for external recruiting and organizations should carefully assess the kinds of positions they want to fill and select the recruiting methods that are likely to produce the best results. The best methods for recruiting executives and professional employees are significantly different than those used in recruiting clerical and sales personnel. The three external and creative methods could be used in recruiting candidate are advertising in media nationwide with simplest form, campus recruitment, Public Employment Agencies, Placement offices in Schools and Colleges , Professional Associations, Military Service, Former Employees , Advertisements in the Media ,competitors and other firms, the unemployed, older individuals, Internship, special events, executive search firms this is all External methods used in recruiting this candidate. External recruiting likewise has advantages. People coming from the outside bring in new ideas and a fresh perspective. They are less likely to accept the attitude that "it's always been done this way" and help other staff see situations in a new light. It is a good idea to fill at least some management positions with outside applicants.
Advertising communicates the firm’s employment needs to the public through media such as newspapers, radio, television, and industry publications. The internet is the newest and fastest growing external recruitment method. Regardless of the advertising method utilized, in determining the content of an advertising message, a firm must decide on the corporate image it want to project. Obviously, the firm should give prospective employees and accurate picture of the job and the organization.
Newspaper advertisingThe firm’s previous experience with various media should suggest the most effective approach for specific types of job. A common form advertising that provides broad coverage at a relatively low cost is the newspaper ad. This situation increases the likelihood of poor selection decisions. At the same time, the firm should attempt to appeal to the self-interest of prospective employees, emphasizing the job’s unique qualities. The ad must tell potential employees why they should be interested in that particular job and organization. The message should be also indicating how an applicant is to respond: apply in person, apply by telephone, or submit a resume by fax or email.
v Employment Agencies
An employment agency is an organization that helps firms recruit employees and at the same time aids individual in their attempt to locate jobs. These agencies perform recruitment and selection functions that have proven quite beneficial to many organizations. Private employment agencies
Private employees agencies, known best for recruiting white-collar employees, often an important, offer an important services in bringing qualified applicants and open position together. However, firm utilize private employment agencies for virtually every type of position. Neither the organization nor the job applicant should overlook this method. The one-time fees that some agencies charge often turn off candidates, although many private employment agencies deal primarily with firm that pays the fees. Employment agencies often have their own web sites to show prospective employees the array of jobs that are available through their agencies.
Public employment agencies
Operated by each state, receive overall policy direction from the U.S Employment Service. Public employment agencies, best known for recruiting and placing individuals in operative jobs, have become increasingly involved in matching people with technical, professional, and managerial positions. Some public agencies use computerized job-matching system to aid in the recruitment process. Public employment agencies provide their services without charge to either employer or the prospective employee.
Virtual Job Fairs
A virtual job is an online event. An online job fair was recently held for students from 22 colleges and universities throughout Maine. The event allowed students to visit virtual employer booths and submit their resumes online 24 hours a day , seven days a week . It has the potential to open up a larger job market to Maine students and graduates. For employers , the virtual job fair reveals a wider range range of students than might attend a live fair “ this venue is less expensive for employers and more convenient for students,” said Sherry Treworgy, associate director of the Career Center at the University of Maine .
b)This is the 8 steps in selection process the company must follow this step to get good worker for their company. Employee requisitions a document that specifies a particular job title, the appropriate department, and the date by which a job should be titled. Organizations need to use the most productive recruitment sources and methods available. Must use recruitment methods are the specific means by which potential employees are attracted to an organization. The process of choosing from a group of applicants those individuals best suited for a particular position and an organization.
Below are the eight steps in selection process:
3. Review of application and resume
4. Selection tests
6. Reference and background checks
7. Selection decision
8. Physical examination
9. Employed individual
Recruited Individuals this the first they fill than they need new employee in the company so they plan to adversities the job in news paper then people send their resume so this is the mean of recruited individuals .
2. Preliminary Individuals
Preliminary Individuals is the first step in selection process and the purpose is to eliminate those who obviously do not meet the position ‘s requirements is mean they will reject the person who not have requirement that they ask like example one company like Christian Dior Exclusive Boutique House need a new worker in position to be Fashion Designer that must have requirement like Degree in Fashion Designer in any college or university and must have pengalaman for 2 year minimum this is the requirement any resume not have this requirement the management will reject the application .the interviewer asks a few straightforward questions. Preliminary interview may benefits for firm, where the position that applicant applied is not only one available, the interviewer will know about other vacancies in the firm.
3. Review of application and resume
Review of application and resume is involve having the employee complete an application for employment and make sure they don’t do any mistake in complete an application from and also employer evaluates it to see whether there is a match between the individual and position is like examples interviewer will see that a person suitable for the position with it individual. A well designed and properly used application form can be a real time saver because it collects important information and presents it in a standardized format specific type of information requested on an application for employment may vary from firm to firm and by job type within an organization. This is very important and also an application form normally contains sections for Name, Address, Telephone number, Military service, Education, Work history. The person who apply for job must fill all this because it is very important and preprinted statements that are very important when the applicant signs the form include certification that everything on the form is true is very important the applicant cannot say wrong statements because it will make him not success in this job.
The form also should contain a statement whereby the candidate gives permission for his or her references to be checked and the information in application form is compared to the job description to determine whether a potential match exists between the firm’s requirements and the applicant’s qualifications. Review of resumes is a common method used by job seekers to present their qualifications. 444 A resume is common method applicants use to present their qualifications even when resume are not required by prospective employers. They are frequently submitted by job seekers. Although there are no hard and fast rules for designing resumes, some general guidelines can followed, depending on the type and level of position sought. Current and permanent addresses and telephone numbers of the applicant are prominently located. The education is a vital factor of their careers, and the applicant’s education level. Work experience follows, especially internships in which student have worked in their degree field in chronological order, with the most recent experience. Prospective employers spend little time reading resume. so, The résumé’s appearance must be neat and correct.
4 Selection tests
Selection tests is used for assessing an applicant’s qualifications and potential to success almost all company have test for applicant to know about applicant potential. Test is used more in the public sector and in medium and large companies. Evidence suggests that the use of tests is becoming more prevalent for assessing an applicant’s qualifications potential for success. A recent study indicates that more than half the organizations surveyed require skill tests for hourly jobs. twenty three percent of firms use skills tests for management job seekers. Test used more in public sector than in the private sector and in medium size and large companies more than in small companies. Large organizational are likely to have trained specialists to run their testing programs.
5. Employment Interviews
Employment Interviews is goal oriented conversation in which an interviewer and an applicant exchange information they will talk about work and their in work what they archive in life and this interview is significant because the applicants who reach this stage are considered to be the most promising candidates 2222 The employment interview is a goal oriented conversation in which the interviewer and applicant exchange information. Historically, most interviews have correlation in the 0.00 to .30 range. The employment interview is especially significant because the applicants who reach are considering being the most promising candidates. They have survived the preliminary interview and scored satisfactorily on selection tests. The candidates appear to be qualified at least on paper. In additional information is needed to indicate whether the individual is willing to work and can adopt to that particular organization.
6. Reference and background checks
Personal reference checks may provide additional insight into the information furnished by applicant and allow verification of its accuracy. In fact, applicants are often required to submit the names of several references that can provide additional information about them. The basic flaw is that virtually every living person can name three or four individuals willing to make favorable statement about him or her. Furthermore, personal references are likely to focus on personal characteristics sources. For this reason, most organizations place more emphasis on investigations of previous employment.
7. Selection decision
After obtaining and evaluating information about the finalists in a job selection process, the manager must take the most critical step of all: making the actual hiring decision. The final choice will be made from among those still in the running after reference checks, selection tests, background investigations, and interview information have been evaluated. The person whose qualifications most closely conform to the requirements of the open position and the organization should be selected. Human resource professionals may be involved in all phases leading up to the final employment decision. However, especially for higher level position, the operating manager will review result of the selection methods used. these included work samples, references or recommendations, unstructured interviews, structured interviews, and assessment centers. Academic research confirms that work samples, assessment centers and structured interviews are good methods.
8. Physical examination
The job offer is contingent on the applicant’s passing this examination. The basic purpose of the physical examination is to determine whether an applicant is physically capable of performing the work. In addition, the physical examination information may used to determine whether certain physical capabilities differentiate successful from less successful employees.Mangers must be aware of the legal liabilities related to physical examinations. The uniform guidelines state that these examinations should be used to reject applicants only when the results show that job performance would be adversely affected.
9. Employed individual/ Final Interview.
Before a selection decision is made, an applicant may be processed through an additional interview with a member of the human resource staff. The purpose of this interview is to integrate all of the information that has been collected during the selection process and to clarify information that is inconsistent or missing .An applicant's final interview is typically held with the line manager or supervisor to whom the selected applicant will report. This interview usually occurs after the human resource office has narrowed the selection decision to three of four candidates. Although the human resource office may indicate its choice of an applicant, the ultimate hiring decision is left to the line manager. Since managers usually select the person that they like the most and think they would enjoy working with, the final interviews essentially comprise a personality contest. Before a selection decision is made, an applicant may be processed through an additional interview with a member of the human resource staff. The purpose of this interview is to integrate all of the information that has been collected during the selection process and to clarify information that is inconsistent or missing.
Job analysis is a basic function of Human Resource Management. It is useful in redesigning jobs. Discuss what is meant by the statement “job analysis is a most basic Human Resource Management Tool”. Organizations consist of positions that have to be staffed. Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties of these positions and the characteristics of the people to hire for them. Job analysis produces information used for writing job descriptions (a list of what the job entails) and job specifications (what kind of people to hire for the job) the supervisor or HR specialist normally collects one or more of the following types of information via the job analysis. Job analysis is a process used to identify the important tasks of a job and the essential competencies an individual should possess to satisfactorily perform the job. A job analysis may be used for multiple purposes. Some of the most common purposes are: determining class entry requirements; selecting individuals for employment; developing employee training plans; and developing performance evaluation measures. There are multiple methods of conducting a job analysis. The methods vary depending on how information is collected, analyzed, documented and used. For the result of a job analysis to be useful the individual conducting the analysis needs to: understand why the analysis is being conducted; how to properly complete the analysis; and , what the job requirements/competencies are Reliability
Reliability refers to the extent to which a process or a result can be replicated. A reliable job analysis procedure is one that provides essentially the same information and when it is applied to the same job by another job specialist; also when it relies on a different sample of job experts; or when it is applied at a different time. Standardized job analysis methods demonstrate acceptable or high levels of reliability. Particularly high levels of reliability can be demonstrated for methods that rely on structured questionnaires, such as worker-oriented questionnaires, job inventories, or checklists. This is especially true if the structure of these instruments carefully controls the usage and meaning of the language. Validity is the extent to which the analysis measures what it was designed to measure. It is a separate requirement from reliability. Reliability of a job analysis procedure does not guarantee its validity. By definition, the validity of a procedure depends on its purpose. A job analysis can only be valid for selection if it identifies those factors that differentiate superior performance from barely acceptable performance. A job analysis technique that simply describes what is done and does not evaluate levels of performance is not valid for development of an examination. Only job analysis techniques which evaluate the level of performance on the job can produce valid examinations.
The collection of quantifiable data has many advantages. Because of these advantages, quantification is an important aspect of most major job analysis methods, but still allows room for judgment. Statistical methods and concepts are tools that can assist in and provide a basis for interpretive judgments, but the HR professional remains responsible for determining what is meaningful and significant. Adaptability as it applies to job analysis can refer to the extent to which the results of an analysis are adaptable or useful in other contexts. Generally, procedures that are narrative and subjective are low in adaptability. Structured instruments tend to be high in adaptability, but only if structures correspond or if the same instrument is administered in the different contexts.
· Work activities. First he or she collects information about the job’s actual work activities, such as cleaning, selling, teaching, or painting. This list may also include how, why, and when the worker performs each activity.
· Human behaviors the specialist may also collect information about human behaviors like sensing, communicating, deciding, and writing. Included here would be information regarding job demands such as lifting weights or walking long distances.
· Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids. This category includes information regarding tools used, materials processed, knowledge dealt with or applied
(Such as finance or law), and services
Job is group of tasks that must be performed if an organization is to achieve its goals and position s the tasks and responsibilities performed by one person , there is a position for every individual in an organization. Job analysis is the procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it. Job description is the a document that provides information regarding the tasks , duties and responsibilities of a job and job specification a document that outlines the minimum acceptable qualifications a person should possess to perform a particular job like this why we need Job analysis in HRM it because to do position job, duties and responsibilities, job specification all we must need so job analysis very important in HRM. Human resources plans should include provisions for job analysis. In performing job
analysis, entities should examine both demand and supply. Demand analysis should
include gathering and feeding back information on changes in the operating environment
which might cause increases or cuts in human resources programs or budgets. Supply
analysis should address :Attrition: The entity should monitor impacts due to separations, including turnover rates from voluntary retirement, medical or disability retirement,
death, leave without pay, or resignation. : The entity should monitor impacts due to such changes as promotions, demotions, reclassifications, transfers, and changes in workers 'skills. Current recruitment: The entity should monitor ongoing recruitment efforts, including related special policy programs. Human resources plans should forecast the numbers and kinds of positions that need to be filled and include mechanisms for tracking and predicting tenure, turnover, and retirements. Human resources plans should map out options and impacts of retrenchment or reprogramming.
Specify the exact requirements for each position in a job description Job descriptions should be developed after appropriate job analysis. Job descriptions should specify job duties and responsibilities as well as the knowledge, skills, and abilities required for competent performance of the job. Complete, accurate, and up-to-date job descriptions should be written and available for all positions within the entity. The entity should periodically assess the relationship between its job description sand its ongoing job analysis processes. Develop programs, policies, and procedures which specify how employees filling each position will be recruited, selected, evaluated, trained, compensated, and retired Specific criteria for these areas of human resources planning are covered in the modules on recruitment/selection, performance appraisal, training and development ,and compensation/rewards, respectively. This is because we need job analysis in HRM because job analysis is very important HRM they will do all the work like example in DIOR boutique the most exclusive FASHION HOUSE IN THE WORLD also have job analysis in HRM .
Your boss has just returned from a conference. He has called al supervisors into office He said, “ I want every employee in this place to be trained”.
a) Explain briefly the training process.
b) Identify and explain three (3) ways by which training and development program are evaluated.
a) The basic training process is training program ideally consists of four steps that is Assessment for to determine training needs. Set training objectives is objectives should be observable and measurable , Training is the actual training techniques are chosen and the training takes place and Evaluation is measure reaction, learning , behavior or results .
Thing refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their jobs. Training is activities designed to provide learners with the knowledge and skill needed for their present jobs and Training is a form of applied education closely related to skills needed on the job. The process of teaching new employees the basic skills they need to perform their jobs. Training might mean showing a new web designer the intricacies of your site, a new salesperson how to sell your firm’s product, or a new supervisor how to interview and evaluate employees. Effective implementation of strategic training requires use of a systematic training process. There are four phases of the training process namely Assessment, design, delivery, and evaluation. A discussion of each phase of the training efforts of the training process follows. Training is designed to help the organization accomplish its objectives. There fore assessing organizational training needs represents the diagnostic phase of setting training objectives.
This assessment considers employee and organizational performance issues to determine if training can help. Using the performance consulting approach mentioned earlier, it is important that non-training factors be considered also, such as compensation, organization structure, job design, and physical work settings. When training needs are identified, the assessment efforts then specify the objectives to be an accomplished. For instance looking at the performance of clerks in a billing department, a manager identifies problems with their data-entry and keyboard abilities and believers that they would benefit from instruction in these areas. As part of assessment, the clerks take a keyboard data-entry test to measure their current skills. Then the manager might establish an objective of increasing their current skills. Then the manager might establish an objective of increasing the clerks ‘ keyboard entry speed to 60 words per minute without errors. The number of words per minute without errors. The number of words per minute without errors is the criterion against which training success can be measured, and it represents the way in which the objective is made specific.
· Determine the mission of the organization.
· Define the job functions/requirements of each employee.
· Determine the training needs of the department.
· Decide which are the most important objectives/priorities of the organization.
· Know how much time/money is available.
· Evaluate the curriculum. Does it mirror the objectives, needs, and mission of the organization?
· Evaluate the results of the training.
Training needs are the differences between what knowledge and skills the job requires, and the talents of the individual holding the job. If the position requires a police officer to achieve 90 percent accuracy on a pistol course, and the recruit has little firearms experience, then the training need is quite obvious. Some training needs, particularly in the area of skills training, are easy to determine. Other training needs are much more obtuse and difficult to define. Training needs in the area of human relations, decision-making, or leadership are very difficult to determine because it requires the trainers or managers subjective judgment as to which employees should have this type of education. This does not mean that these subjects should not be taught. Rather, it means that the organization be selective as to whom it selects to receive the program. Often an organization will decide that everyone attend the course rather than select a few people to attend. Usually this is a waste of valuable time and money. A good example would be those popular courses on time management. Time management is an attitudinal subject. Some personalities are well-suited to using a formal program of time management. Usually these are the people with clean, orderly desks. However, for those people who have disorganized, messy desks (like myself), all of the time management courses in the world will not have a permanent effect on their behavior. This does not mean people with messy desks are bad, or lousy employees, it just means these people think differently than others. If time management is a problem with an employee like this, then the problem can be solved in another way, by rules, regulations and fear.A manager must task those responsible for training to determine the needs of the organization as accurately as possible. This should happen before any recommendations are made as to what courses are required to bring employees up to the standards required for a successful job performance.
b)The ways by which training and development program are evaluated. Like this In the assessment phase, the need for training and development is examined, as well as the resources available to provide the training both within the organization and in the external environment. The assessment should include a consideration of who should be trained, what sort of training they will need, and how such training will benefit the organization. The objectives of the training program are derived from the assessment. These objectives play a vital role in both the development of the training program and its subsequent evaluation.
In the training and development phase, the training is designed and presented. The training should contain activities and learning experiences that satisfy the objectives established in the assessment phase. Many different training activities, including both on-the-job and off-the-job activities, can be used depending on the objectives of the training.
After the training has been conducted, the evaluation occurs. The first step in evaluating the success of a training program is deciding what the evaluation criteria are. These criteria should be based on the initial objectives of the training. For example, was the purpose of the training to disseminate new information, to change certain behaviors, to acquire new skills, or to change specific attitudes? Once the criteria have been established, the trainees can be evaluated to determine whether the training was successful. The evaluation also should assess whether the learning that occurred in the training program transferred to the actual job situation.
The feedback arrow at the bottom of emphasizes the idea that training should be ongoing. Training does not have a definite beginning and ending - it is an ongoing process of assessing needs, presenting programs, and evaluating results to determine whether organizational needs have been satisfied. Because it is an ongoing process, the degree to which a training program has met its objectives cannot really be assessed at one particular point in time. Instead, the effects of training have to be viewed in terms of their short-term and long-term implications
The design and presentation of training programs should be consistent with the two major learning theories: operant conditioning and social cognitive theory. These theories suggest that the following principles of learning are important in designing training programs: stimulus, response, motivation, feedback, and transfer of training.
1. Stimulus: meaningful organization of materials. To facilitate learning, the stimulus should be easily perceived and meaningfully organized. For example, learning calculus is easiest when the text describing how to do it is written logically so that one idea builds on another. Learning to drive is simplified when the visual field of stop signs, intersections, and other objects can be perceived easily. Learning safety procedures is easiest when they are explained in a logical and systematic order.
2. Response: practice and repetition. Rote learning and motor response learning consists of developing stimulus-response associations - when the appropriate stimulus is presented, the trainee should make the correct response. To increase the likelihood that the trainee will make the correct response on future occasions, operant conditioning recommends that the response be rehearsed through extensive practice accompanied by intermittent reinforcement. To gain the full benefit of training, learned behavior must be overlearned to ensure smooth performance and a minimum of forgetting at a later date. However, practice is not as necessary for learning ideas and insights. Many human behaviors are performed with little or no practice. Studies of imitative behavior have shown that after watching models perform a novel behavior, observers can later describe the behavior with considerable accuracy, and, given appropriate incentives, the observers are able to reproduce the behavior exactly on the first trial.10
3. Motivation: reinforcement and active participation. Training programs do not succeed unless trainees are receptive to the instruction and they have a reason to learn. As a general rule, learning improves as the rewards for learning increase, and active participation and involvement with others are usually highly reinforcing. Both intrinsic satisfaction and extrinsic rewards can be used to facilitate training. Most learning situations are intrinsically reinforcing because of the satisfaction associated with acquiring new knowledge or skills. However, intrinsic satisfaction by itself is not enough to perpetuate new learning. 11Even safety training to avoid death and disability is not sufficiently self-rewarding to change behavior without additional incentives12. Companies are required to provide other forms of rewards or punishment such as financial incentives, recognition, intergroup competition, or the threat of being fired.
4. Feedback: knowledge of results. Performance feedback is a necessary prerequisite for learning. 13Feedback improves performance not only by helping learners correct their mistakes but also by providing reinforcement for learning. Knowledge of results is a positive form of reinforcement by itself. Learning activities have more intrinsic interest when performance feedback is available. Performance feedback should inform learners whether they were right or wrong and, when possible, explain how they can avoid making mistakes in the future. In general, knowledge of results is an essential feature of learning, and the sooner this knowledge comes after the learner's response, the better. Studies in animal learning suggest that the ideal timing of the feedback is to have it occur almost immediately after the response has been made.
5. Transfer of training. Transfer of training occurs when trainees can apply the knowledge and skills learned in training back to their jobs. If the learning does not transfer then the training has failed. Three transfer-of-training situations are possible: (1) positive transfer of training occurs when the training activities enhance performance in the new situation, (2) negative transfer of training occurs when the training activities inhibit performance in the new situation, and (3) no observable effect of training could occur. The conditions that determine whether positive, negative, or no transfer of training will result depend on the similarity of the two environments and how similar the responses learned in training are to the responses required on the actual job. 14
Nowadays employees expect their employer to provide work environment that are safe secure and healthy. However, many employers viewed accidents and occupational diseases as unavoidable by products of work.
a) Define health, safety and security. How these three are interrelated.
b) Discuss three purposes of health, safety and security as Human Resource activities.
a) Today employees expect their employers to provide work environments that are safe, secure, and healthy. However, many employers once viewed accidents and occupational diseases as unavoidable by- products of work. This idea may still be prevalent in many industrial settings in underdeveloped countries. Fortunately in the Malaysia and most developed nations, this idea has been replaced with the concept of using prevention and control to minimize or eliminate risks in workplaces. Example in DIOR BOUTIQUE have one employee is sick for examples Vanessa. Vanessa cannot work and it will bring bad effect to Vanessa because when she sick she must go to meet a doctor. However, Vanessa doesn’t go to meet the doctor, she come to work. As a manager you need to advice your staff to see the doctor. Besides that in working condition the manager should provides a panel clinic for each staff and should provide safety condition in workplace. How these three interrelated because when you are not in a good health you cannot work well and it can be dangerous if you working in a bad condition without any good safety in workplace.
A number of laws and regulations have been enacted that establish requirements for Malaysian employers. Employers have recognized that addressing health, safety, and security issues is part of effective HR management.
The health, safety, and security are closely related. The term health is refers to a general state of physical, mental, and emotional well-being. A healthy person is free of illness, injury, or mental and emotional problems that impair normal human activity. Health management practices in organizations strive to maintain the overall well being of individuals. Safety refers to protecting the physical well being of people. The main purpose of effective safety programs in organizations is to prevent work related injuries and accidents. The purpose of security is protecting employees and organizational facilities. With the growth of workplace violence, security at work has become an even greater concern for employers and employees alike. This how health, safety and security are interrelated.
B) The Human Resource are manage the health, safety and security in any company the Human Resource make all employee get good health, good and safety environment with good security in the company and the purposes of health, safety and security as Human Resource activities is to make sure all employee have good way of in the company. Besides that to make sure all employee get their safety tools before they work. The general goal of providing a safe, secure, and healthy workplace is reached by operating managers and HR staff member working together .as this table figure indicates, the primary health, safety, and security responsibilities in an organization usually fall on supervisors and managers.
An HR manager or safety specialist can help coordinate health and safety programs, investigate accidents, produce safety program materials, and conduct formal safety training. However department supervisors and managers play key roles in maintaining safe working conditions and a healthy workforce. For example, a supervisor in a warehouse has several health and safety responsibilities reminding employees to wear safety hats checking on the cleanliness of the work area: observing employees for any alcohol, drug, or emotional problems that may affect their work behavior and recommending equipment changes (such as screens, railings, or other safety devices) to engineering specialists in the organization. This all a purposes of health, safety and security as Human Resource activities.
Regarding security, HR managers and specialist can coordinate their efforts with those in other operating areas t develop access restrictions and employee identification procedures, contract or manage organizational security services such as guards, and train all mangers and supervisors to handle potentially volatile situations. Managers and supervisors can observe work premises to identify potential security problems and communicate with employees exhibiting sings of stress that could lead to workplace violence this is purposes of health, safety and security as Human Resource activities. Organizations face unique challenges and they need to develop human resource functions that are consistent with their unique situations. The major human resource functions include staffing, performance evaluations, compensation and benefits, training and development, employee relations, and safety and health.
These functions are necessary for every organization, regardless of size and organizational structure, and the responsibility for them is typically assigned to a human resource department. Small organizations with fewer than 50 to 80 employees typically do not have a human resource manager and these functions are assigned to other departments, while large organizations may delegate them to separate departments. For example, a large organization may have a separate safety department, while a small organization delegates safety responsibilities to it's line managers. The strategic human resource management model is illustrated in. As shown in this model, organizational strategies must be aligned with other functional strategies, including human resource strategies. Once these strategies have been determined, they must be implemented and evaluated. Human resource activities must be adapted to different organizational strategies.
The major human resource functions include staffing, performance evaluations, compensation and benefits, training and development, employee relations, and safety and health. and this is the purpose t of health, safety and security as Human Resource activities
QUESTION ONE (1)
Human Resources Planning (HRP) is tied to the broader process of strategic planning, beginning with identifying the philosophy and mission of the organization.
(a) Define strategic planning. What roles does Human Resources play in strategic planning?
(b) Explain the Human Resources Planning?
QUESTION TWO (2)
Assume you had to recruit a sales representative’s job for a pharmaceutical manufacturer. You want to recruit a qualified candidate to fill this position.
(a) Give and explain the external and creative methods could be used in recruiting this candidate.
(b) After receiving application from the candidate, the next step is making a selection. Explain eight (8) steps in selection process.
QUESTION THREE (3)
Job analysis is a basic function of Human Resources Management. It is useful in designing jobs. Discuss what is meant by the statement, “Job analysis is a most basic Human Resources Management tool.”
QUESTION FOUR (4)
Your boss has just returned from a conference. He has called all the supervisors into office. He said, “I want every employee in this place to be trained”.
(a) Explain briefly the training process.
(b) Identify and explain three (3) ways by which training and development program are evaluated
QUESTION FIVE (5)
Nowadays employees expect their employer to provide work environment that are safe, secure and healthy. However, many employers viewed accident and occupational diseases as unavoidable by products of work.
(a) Define health, security and safety. How these three are interrelated.
(b) Discuss three (3) purposes of health, safety and security as Human Resources activities.
I am Kesavan Govindasamy like to wish thank you to MISS NORAISHAH KAMAROLZAMAN help and comment about my assignment I really appreciate and because guide me in doing my assignment . I am happy because done the assignment also I like thank you to my father MR Govindasamy Millan and my mother MRS Usah Rani Rentnam because give advice and support me in doing my assignment last not in list I like to thank you Karthigesa Palanisamy